Instruction to students: • You must write ONE essay from a choice of three opti

Instruction to students:
• You must write ONE essay from a choice of three options.
§ Write a well-structured essay of 3000 words in length.
§ You must show engagement with theory, including an awareness of the work of
key scholars in this field, and must provide a well-argued analysis drawing on
specific examples.
§ Your work must be correctly cited, using the Cardiff Business School Harvard
style of referencing.
§ A list of references – correctly formulated – must be submitted as your final page.
§ The references list is not included in the word count of your essay.
§ A margin of 10% above or below the 3000-word total is permitted.
Ø Be sure to write the question in full at the top of your work.
Ø Do not put your name on your work.
Ø Write your student number at the top of every page.
You must use the title exactly as it is. (Do not create your own.)
Choose one of the following options:
For managers of international companies, to what extent does Poland present the
challenges of an emerging market economy? Think about whether it should be
classified as an emerging market economy, a developed economy, or something in
between. Consider the practical implications of the varying definitions of emerging vs
developed economies by academics and by organisations such as the International
Monetary Fund (IMF) and the United Nations (UN).
How well does the state capitalism perspective help international managers respond to
different business environments? Develop an argument using an example comparing
the UK with another country. Refer to recent articles on state capitalism, such as that of
Wood et al. (2021).1
To what extent do sharing economy companies, such as Airbnb and Uber, face distinct
challenges of internationalization into emerging vs developed market economies? Refer
to concepts such as digitalisation, Born Global internationalization, institutions, and
emerging market economies.